Daily 5 Meta-Analysis

Daily 5 is a framework for teaching literacy lessons, that focuses on increasing student choice. During each lesson students get to choose between 1 of 5 activities: reading to self, work on writing, read to someone, word work, or listen to reading. I wanted to explore the efficacy of Daily 5 Language instruction through meta-analysis. However, there was no meta-analysis I could find on the topic, so I decided to do my own. The Daily Five website, which promotes their methodology of teaching had a reference list on its website as evidence of its own efficacy. I went through the studies on this list and was able to find 5 studies that conducted some form of quantitative analysis. None of these studies had calculated their own effect sizes; however, strangely all of them included their raw data. I was able to extrapolate this data for the purposes of this meta. Before I begin with my results, I do want to say that the quality of these studies was extremely low. 

 

All of the papers were Masters or Phd thesis papers and none of them were peer reviewed. Moreover, these papers were hand picked by the Daily 5 website to promote their papers. Most of the experimental teaching was conducted by the researchers themselves. Only one study had a control group and most studies had a sample size below 15. In order to properly conduct the effect sizes, I needed a control group for the studies without a control group, to this end I used the mean progress students were supposed to make for the corresponding grade as a comparison control group for most studies. I would have ideally liked to pooled the results together to do a true meta-analysis. However, I decided the data pools were too heterogeneous for this to make sense.

That all being said, the mean results, indicated very little evidence that Daily 5 harmed or benefited student achievement or learning, despite the fact that these studies were originally hand picked to prove the efficacy of Daily 5. Ultimately Daily 5 is more of a lesson framework than a specific pedagogical strategy. I therefore think, if teachers enjoy using Daily 5, that they should continue to use the framework. However, based on this research, there is very little evidence to suggest that Daily 5 is an evidence-based practice.

 

Results:

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Studies:

The Impact of Daily 5 and CAFE Literacy Framework on Reading Comprehension in Struggling Fourth Grade Readers: A Case Study

This study was conducted by Sandra Lee in 2016, for Portland State University, for her PHD thesis. She conducted a 10 week intervention, working one on one with 6 struggling students. She conducted a pre DRA test and a post DRA test at the beginning and end of the school year. Comparing the results of her students to average student results in the same grade, resulted in an extremely negative effect size of -2.86. The results of this study were so extremely negative, that I think they should be discounted as outlier data. 

 

Examining the Impact of Explicit Daily Five Instruction on Kindergartner’s Literacy Skills Merissa J. Peters Eastern Illinois University

This study was conducted by Merissa Peters, in an unspecified year, for a Master's thesis at Illinois State University. Her study looked at 19 kindergarten students. She used a pre-post test based on a CVC word list. She did not have a control group and I could not create a hypothetical comparable control group. The intervention was 4 weeks long. Even without a control group, the resulting effect size was only .16. 

 

Improving Student Reading Levels Through Literacy Workstations and Guided Reading

This study was written by Cindy Eng, for a Master’s program at an unspecified school, during an unspecified time period. The study was 7 weeks long and looked at kindergarten students. This study was likely the best executed study, as it had the largest sample of 57 students and a control group. Indeed I used it’s control group and SD as a comparison group for the next study, as the next study had a tiny sample size, resulting in distorted data. The resulting effect size for this study was .49.

How Does the Use of the Daily 5 Structure Influence Reading Scores of ELL Students?
This study was a master’s thesis, written in 2009, for the University of Washington, by Tamara Yakel. This study looked at 6 ELL students between the age of 12 to 14. The study lasted for an unspecified amount of time. The resulting effect size was .12. 

 

Collaborative Action Research: The Daily Five:

This study was written by Joanne Cilia-Duncan, in 2008. It was based on 12 of her grade one students. The intervention lasted the entire year. I based my effect size on comparing her results with an average grade 1 class full year DRA progress. The resulting effect size was .25. 

 

References:

Daily 5. (2020). The Daily 5 and Cafe Research Studies. Retrieved from <https://www.thedailycafe.com/articles/The-Daily-5-and-CAFE-Research-Studies>.

J, Cilia Duncan. (2008). Collaborative Action Research: The Daily Five. Walden University. Retrieved from <https://www.thedailycafe.com/sites/default/files/Collaborative%20Action%20Research%20The%20Daily%20Five%20Cilia-Duncan%2C%20J.%20%202008.pdf>. 

 

T, Yakel. (2009). How Does the Use of the Daily 5 Structure Influence Reading Scores of ELL Students? Washington University. Retrieved from <https://www.thedailycafe.com/sites/default/files/Tamara%20Yackel%27s%20Masters%20Thesis%202009%20Daily%205.pdf>. 

 

C, Eng. (2011). Improving Student Reading Levels Through Literacy Workstations and Guided Reading. Retrieved from <https://www.fortbendisd.com/cms/lib09/TX01917858/Centricity/Domain/71/Action%20Research/improving-student-reading-levels-through-literacy-workstations-and-guided-reading.pdf>.

 

M, Peters. Examining the Impact of Explicit Daily Five Instruction on Kindergartner’s Literacy Skills. Eastern Illinois University. Retrieved from <https://www.eiu.edu/researchinaction/pdf/Missy_Peters_Manuscript.pdf>. 

 

S, Duty. (2016). The Impact of Daily 5 and CAFE Literacy Framework on Reading Comprehension in Struggling Fourth Grade Readers: A Case Study. Portland State University. Retrieved from <https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=3715&context=open_access_etds>.

J, Hattie. (2017).  Hattie Ranking: 252 Influences And Effect Sizes Related To Student Achievement. Visible Learning. Corwin. Retrieved from <https://visible-learning.org/hattie-ranking-influences-effect-sizes-learning-achievement/>.